Prolactin ELISA (CE)

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Prolactin Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit provides materials for the quantitative measurement of prolactin in human serum.

Regulatory Status

CE Mark kit for in vitro diagnostic use outside the U.S. For Export Only.

Packaging

96 well microtiter

Detection

HRP-based ELISA, colorimetric detection by dual wavelength absorbance at 450 nm and 630 nm as reference filter

Dynamic Range

6, 1.40-244.0 ng/mL

Limit of Detection

0.4 ng/mL

Sample Size

20 µL

Sample Type

Serum

Assay Time

1 hour

Species Reactivity

Bovine, Human, Non-Human Primate

Shelf Life

24 months

Availability

Worldwide

Prolactin is a 198-amino acid, 23 kDa polypeptide hormone secreted in significant amounts by the anterior pituitary gland. The prolactin molecule has extensive sequence homology with growth hormone and placental lactogen1. Recent studies have revealed molecular heterogeneity for prolactin in both pituitary extracts and blood2,3. Prolactin secretion is regulated by complex mechanisms involving neurotransmitters and endocrine hormones. Many of the regulatory pathways involve hypothalamic secretion of dopamine, which inhibits prolactin secretion4. Prolactin, in synergy with estrogen, plays an important physiologic role in the initiation and maintenance of mammary land growth and lactation in humans1,4.

In addition, prolactin may have effects on cell growth in other tissues and on immune function. Particularly when present in high concentrations, prolactin may have inhibitory effects on gonadal function. Prolactin is present in several body fluids, including plasma, amniotic fluid, milk, mucosal secretions, and cerebrospinal fluid. Relative elevations in plasma prolactin concentrations occur during ovulation, pregnancy, nursing and stress1,2,4. Abnormal elevations in plasma prolactin levels, or hyperprolactinemia, can occur as a result of pituitary adenomas, and may also be seen in other anatomic and traumatic abnormalities involving the pituitary gland (e.g., tumors, surgery, trauma), as a consequence of certain pharmacologic agents, and primary hypothyroidism. Low prolactin levels, or hypoprolactinemia, is observed in cases of hypopituitarism5,6.

References:

  1. Nicoll CS, Mayer GL, Russell SM: Structural features of prolactins and growth hormones that can be related to their biological properties. Endocrin Rev 7:169-203, 1986.
  2. Sinha YN: Structural variants of prolactin: occurrence and physiological significance. Endocrin Rev 16:354-369, 1995.
  3. Liu MY, Zhou S, Tang T: Radioreceptor assay for human prolactin and the heterogeneity of prolactin in the sera from patients with pituitary prolactin-secreting adenoma. Chin J Pathophysiol 10:420, 1994.
  4. Lambert SWJ, MacLeod RM: Regulation of prolactin secretion at the level of the lactotroph. Physiol Rev 70:219-318, 1990.
  5. Liu MY, Zhou S: The new aspects of prolactin action. Prog Physiol Sci 21:36, 1990.s et al: Measurement of serum ferritin by a two-site immunoradiometric assay. Ann Biochem 61:209, 1974.
  6. Burtis CA,Ashwood ER: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, 2nd ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1994, p 1675.
  7. HHS Publication, 5th ed., 2007. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. Available http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL5
  8. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 78–127, August 1976. Current Intelligence Bulletin 13 – Explosive Azide Hazard. Available: http:// www.cdc.gov/niosh.
  9. Kricka L. Interferences in immunoassays – still a threat. Clin Chem 2000; 46: 1037–1038.

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