Most biomarkers start out with a specific application; however, as more researchers become involved, the range of applicable areas increases significantly. Initially, Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) was used in determining neonatal gender in cases of ambiguous genitalia. Not long after, AMH became very popular in estimating ovarian reserve. In recent years, the level of interest in measuring AMH in PCOS patients has increased substantially. From the first publication about PCOS in December 2003, the number of AMH with PCOS and menopause studies has increased substantially and will likely exceed the number of ovarian reserve publications.
Ansh Labs’ current feature products include novel immunoassay test kits for reproductive function such as anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), Inhibin B, Inhibin A, Activin A, Follistatin, and other TGF-beta superfamily hormones involved in folliculogenesis [EduGraphic]. There are many ongoing studies of these hormones using our assays and rapidly growing interest in new diagnostic applications in gynecology and oncology. Our most recent additions to this assay family were Follistatin Like-3 and Activin B, along with GDF-9 and BMP-15 in development.
Following, we have put together a list of recommended readings that discusses in-depth the various assays and their role in the various disease states.
Jump to section on:
Premature Ovarian Failure (POF)
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Cancers of the Reproductive System
Assisted Reproductive Technology
Disorders of Sex Development
Species-Specific Assays and Crossreactivity
Traditionally FSH is measured to diagnose menopause. FSH, secreted from the anterior pituitary gland offers an indirect measure of ovarian reserve and is subject to cycle variability. Hormones produced from the ovary serve as direct markers of ovarian reserve. AMH and Inhibin B levels have been shown to decline approaching menopause and numerous studies report correlation of AMH decline with onset of menopause complications. With the introduction of our picoAMH ELISA, researchers now have a sensitive AMH assay for the staging of ovarian age and prediction of the onset of menopause. Accurate prediction of the final menstrual period will be tremendously advantageous for physicians to decide a proper hormone replacement therapy to ameliorate vasomotor symptoms, decide appropriateness of cessation of contraception, make recommendations for bone mineral density (BMD) measurement early on to identify patients at high risk of losing bone at an accelerated rate leading to osteoporosis, identify those early menopause onset women with increased risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular or stroke event risk, etc.
- de Kat AC, van der Schouw YT, Eijkemans MJ, Herber-Gast GC, Visser JA, Verschuren WM, Broekmans FJ. Back to the basics of ovarian aging: a population-based study on longitudinal anti-Müllerian hormone decline. BMC Med. 2016 Oct 3;14(1):151. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Gohari MR, Ramezani Tehrani F, Chenouri S, Solaymani-Dodaran M, Azizi F. Individualized predictions of time to menopause using multiple measurements of antimüllerian hormone. Menopause. 2016 Aug;23(8):839-45
- Depmann M, Eijkemans MJ, Broer SL, Scheffer GJ, van Rooij IA, Laven JS, Broekmans FJ. Does anti-Müllerian hormone predict menopause in the general population? Results of a prospective ongoing cohort study. Hum Reprod. 2016 Jul;31(7):1579-87
- Nair S, Slaughter JC, Terry JG, Appiah D, Ebong I, Wang E, Siscovick DS, Sternfeld B, Schreiner PF, Lewis CE, Kabagambe EK, Wellons MF. Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is associated with natural menopause in a population-based sample: The CARDIA Women’s Study. Mauritas. 2015 Aug;81(4):493-8. Products Cited: US AMH ELISA AL-105
- Aydogan B, Mirkin S. The utility of measuring anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting menopause. Climacteric. 2015 Dec; 18(6):777-89. Products Cited: US AMH ELISA AL-105
- Cui L, Qin Y, Gao X, Lu J, Geng L, Ding L, Qu Z, Zhang X, Chen Z. Anti-Mullerian Hormone: correlation with age and androgenic and metabolic factors in women from birth to postmenopause. Reproductive Endocrinology. 2016 Feb, 105(2):481-5. Products Cited: US AMH ELISA AL-105, picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Nichols HB, Baird DD, Stanczyk FZ, Steiner AZ, Troester MA, Whitworth KW, Sandler DP. Anti-Müllerian Hormone Concentrations in Premenopausal Women and Breast Cancer Risk. Cancer Prevention Research. 2015 Jun;8(6):528-34. Products Cited: US AMH ELISA AL-105, picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Robertson DM, Kumar A, Kalra B, Shah S, Pruysers E, Vanden Brink H, Chizen D, Visser JA, Themmen AP, Baerwald A. Detection of serum antimüllerian hormone in women approaching menopause using sensitive antimüllerian hormone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Menopause. 2014 Dec; 21(12):1277-86. Products Cited: US AMH ELISA AL-105, picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Hall JE. Endocrinology of the Menopause. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Sep;44(3):485-96.
- Crawford S, Finkelstein J, Gold E, Greendale G, Harlow S, Joffe H, Kalra B, Kumar A, Martin D, Merillat S,Morrison A, Sluss P, Thurston R, Avis N. Predicting Onset of Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms with Anti-Mullerian Hormone in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Presented at 98th Annual Endocrine Society Meeting; 2016 Apr 1-3; Boston, MA. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Finkelstein JS, Lee H, Burnett-Bowie SAM, Santoro N, Yu EW, Joffe H, Morrison A, Kumar A, Greendale GA, Gold E, Harlow S, Lasley BL, Derby C, Randolph JF, Matthews KA, Kravitz HM, McConnell DS, Brooks MM, Martin D, Darakananda K, Hirsch SC, Sluss PM. Utility of Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) for Predicting the Time to the Final Menstrual Period: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Presented at 98th Annual Endocrine Society Meeting; 2016 Apr 1-3; Boston, MA. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Karlamangla AS, Shieh A, Burnett-Bowie SA, Yu EW, Greendale GA, Sluss PM, Martin D, Finkelstein JS. Anti- Mullerian Hormone and Prediction of Trans-Menopausal Bone Loss. Presented at 98th Annual Endocrine Society Meeting; 2016 Apr 1-3; Boston, MA. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- El Khoudary SR, Wang L, Brooks MM, Matthews KA, Thurston RC, Crawford S, Derby C, Jackson EA, Lee JS, Un-Yong Chae C, McConnell DS, Finkelstein J. Associations of Anti-Mullerian Hormone Premenopausal Levels and Their Changes over the Menopausal Transition with Lipids: The Study of Women′s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Presented at 98th Annual Endocrine Society Meeting; 2016 Apr 1-3; Boston, MA. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Joffe H, Crawford S, Bromberger JT, Kalra B, Kumar A, Morrison A, Finkelstein J, Kravitz JM. Vasomotor Symptoms Mediate the Association Between Anti-Mullerian Hormone Levels and New-Onset Sleep Disturbance in Women during the Menopause Transition: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Presented at 98th Annual Endocrine Society Meeting; 2016 Apr 1-3; Boston, MA. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Huddleston H, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Haisenleder DJ, Diamond MP, Cedars M. Can We Expect to Improve Age at Menopause Predictions with Repeated AMH Measurements. Poster session at American Society for Reproductive Medicine; 2016 Oct 17-21; Salt Lake City, Utah. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Buckbinder J, Mucowski S, Burks H, Stanczyk F, Hodis H, Mack W, Bendikson K, Shoupe D. The Detection and Clinical Utilization of Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) in Postmenopausal Women Using the New Highly Sensitive ELISA. Poster session at American Society for Reproductive Medicine; 2015 Oct 17-21; Baltimore, Maryland. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
POF is defined as loss of function of ovaries before age 40. Underlying causes range from chromosomal defects to chemotherapy induced gonadal toxicity. AMH and Inhibins applicable to menopause diagnosis may also be useful in the diagnosis of POF leading to early onset menopause. Numerous studies associate mutations in BMP-15 and GDF-9 with POF, though it is yet to be determined if follicular fluid concentrations of these proteins is useful in assessment of POF.
- Romualdi D, Proto C, De Cicco S, Immediata V, Barone C, Romano C, Lanzone A. Low AMH levels as a marker of reduced ovarian reserve in young women affected by Down’s syndrome. Menopause. 2016 Nov;23(11):1247-1251.
- Alipour F, Rasekhjahromi A, Maalhagh M, Sobhanian S, Hosseinpoor M. Comparison of Specificity and Sensitivity of AMH and FSH in Diagnosis of Premature Ovarian Failure. Dis Markers. 2015:585604.
- Lunding SA, Aksglaede L, Anderson RA, Main KM, Juul A, Hagen CP, Pedersen AT1. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency: A Longitudinal Study of 120 Turner Syndrome Patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jul;100(7): E1030-8.
- Munz W, Hammadeh ME, Seufert R, Schaffrath M, Schmidt W, Pollow K. Serum inhibin A, inhibin B, pro-alphaC, and activin A levels in women with idiopathic premature ovarian failure. Fertil Steril. 2004 Sep;82(3):760-2
- Qin Y, Jiao X, Simpson JL, Chen ZJ. Genetics of primary ovarian insufficiency: new developments and opportunities. Hum Reprod Update. 2015 Nov-Dec;21(6):787-808
- Bouilly J, Beau I, Barraud S, Bernard V, Azibi K, Fagart J, Fèvre A, Todeschini AL, Veitia RA, Beldjord C, Delemer B, Dodé C, Young J, Binart N. Identification of Multiple Gene Mutations Accounts for a new Genetic Architecture of Primary Ovarian Insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Dec;101(12):4541-4550
PCOS is a complex endocrine system disorder with reproductive, metabolic, cardiovascular and psychological manifestations. Our objectives include establishing the utility of AMH and other novel ovarian health markers for research and clinical applications in PCOS, menopause, etc. We believe that the underdiagnosis of PCOS is a significant medical problem. Menstrual history and ultrasonography along with serum-based markers like testosterone and LH to FSH ratio are currently used to diagnose PCOS. However, these methods are error-prone and are at best suggestive of PCOS. AMH levels are reported high in PCOS patients and in recent years has gained considerable attention as a potential diagnostic tool. There is a tremendous need to address these limitations to improve patient quality of life from menarche through menopause by encouraging the early diagnosis of PCOS with effective assays and diagnostic standards. It is for this reason that Ansh Labs is actively working in close collaboration with many known opinion leaders to better understand this biomarker and its potential role in PCOS.
- Kim JY, Tfayli H, Michaliszyn SF, Lee S, Nasr A, Arslanian S. Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Obese Adolescent Girls with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. J Adolesc Health. 2016 Dec 17
- Song DK, Oh JY, Lee H, Sung YA. Differentiation between polycystic ovary syndrome and polycystic ovarian morphology by means of an anti-Müllerian hormone cutoff value. Korean J Intern Med. 2016 Nov 30
- Jacob SL, Field HP, Calder N, Picton HM, Balen AH, Barth JH. Anti-Müllerian hormone reflects the severity of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Nov 2
- Garg D, Tal R. The role of AMH in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Reprod Biomed Online. 2016 Jul;33(1):15-28
- Yetim A, Yetim Ç, Baş F, Erol OB, Çığ G, Uçar A, Darendeliler F. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Inhibin-A, but not Inhibin-B or Insulin-Like Peptide-3, may be Used as Surrogates in the Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents: Preliminary Results. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2016 Sep 1;8(3):288-97
- Dafopoulos K, Venetis C, Messini CI, Pournaras S, Anifandis G, Garas A, Messinis IE. Inhibin secretion in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome before and after treatment with progesterone. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011 Apr 29;9:59. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-9-59
- Teede H, Ng S, Hedger M, Moran L. Follistatin and activins in polycystic ovary syndrome: relationship to metabolic and hormonal markers. Metabolism. 2013 Oct;62(10):1394-400
- Chen MJ, Yang WS, Chen HF, Kuo JJ, Ho HN, Yang YS, Chen SU. Increased follistatin levels after oral contraceptive treatment in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2010 Mar;25(3):779-85
- Wei LN, Huang R, Li LL, Fang C, Li Y, Liang XY. Reduced and delayed expression of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian tissues from women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2014 Nov;31(11):1483-90.
- Wei LN, Li LL, Fang C, Huang R, Liang XY. Inhibitory effects of controlled ovarian stimulation on the expression of GDF9 and BMP15 in oocytes from women with PCOS. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2013 Oct;30(10):1313-8.
- Quinn M, Kao C, Ahmad AK, Cedars M, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Haisenleder DJ, Legro RS, Huddleston H. Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) as a Predictor of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Age and Body Mass Index (BMI)-Stratified Thresholds for Distinguishing PCOS from Controls Using an Identical Assay. Poster session at American Society for Reproductive Medicine; 2016 Oct 17-21; Salt Lake City, Utah. Products Cited: US AMH ELISA AL-105
Besides their utility in assessment of ovarian reserve, many TGF-beta superfamily proteins may also be useful in researching various cancers of the reproductive system. Two independent studies using Ansh Labs’ AMH assays reported a positive correlation between AMH and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. AMH was also reported as a biomarker for adult-type granulosa cell tumors. Utility of AMH as a biomarker in cancer research is further supported by animal studies where serum AMH levels were used to diagnose canine Sertoli cell tumors and granulosa cell tumors in mares. Additionally, several studies highlight the importance of Inhibin A, Inhibin B, Follistatin and Follistatin-Like 3 as biomarkers in cancers such as granulosa cell tumors, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer.
- Nichols HB, Baird DD, Stanczyk FZ, Steiner AZ, Troester MA, Whitworth KW, Sandler DP. Anti-Müllerian Hormone Concentrations in Premenopausal Women and Breast Cancer Risk. Cancer Prevention Research. 2015 Jun; 8(6):528-34. Products Cited: US AMH ELISA AL-105 and picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Eliassen AH, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Rosner B, Hankinson SE. Plasma Anti-Müllerian Hormone Concentrations and Risk of Breast Cancer among Premenopausal Women in the Nurses’ Health Studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 May; 25(5):854-60. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Kim HA, Seong MK, Kim JH, Kim YG, Choi HS, Kim JS, Park IC, Jin HO, Lee JK, Noh WC. Prognostic Value of Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Inhibin B in Patients with Premenopausal Hormone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer. Anticancer Res. 2016 Mar; 36(3):1051-7
- Holst BS, Dreimanis U. Anti-Müllerian hormone: a potentially useful biomarker for the diagnosis of canine Sertoli cell tumours. BMC Vet Res. 2015 Jul 25; 11:166.
- Ball BA, Almeida J, Conley AJ. Determination of serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations for the diagnosis of granulosa-cell tumours in mares. Equine Vet J. 2013 Mar; 45(2):199-203.
- Haltia UM, Hallamaa M, Tapper J, Hynninen J, Alfthan H, Kalra B, Ritvos O, Heikinheimo M, Unkila-Kallio L, Perheentupa A, Färkkilä A. Roles of human epididymis protein 4, carbohydrate antigen 125, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone in the differential diagnosis and follow-up of ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Gynecol Oncol. 2017 Jan; 144(1):83-89. Products Cited: AMH ELISA AL-105
- Walentowicz P, Krintus M, Sadlecki P, Grabiec M, Mankowska-Cyl A, Sokup A, Walentowicz-Sadlecka M. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B levels in epithelial ovarian cancer patients. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 5;9(3)
- Ren P, Chen FF, Liu HY, Cui XL, Sun Y, Guan JL, Liu ZH, Liu JG, Wang YN. High serum levels of follistatin in patients with ovarian cancer. J Int Med Res. 2012; 40(3):877-86
- Couto HL, Buzelin MA, Toppa NH, Bloise E, Wainstein AJ, Reis FM. Prognostic value of follistatin-like 3 in human invasive breast cancer. Oncotarget. 2017 Feb
- Mangé A, Dimitrakopoulos L, Soosaipillai A, Coopman P, Diamandis EP, Solassol J. An integrated cell line-based discovery strategy identified follistatin and kallikrein 6 as serum biomarker candidates of breast carcinoma. J Proteomics. 2016 Jun 16; 142:114-21
- Shi L, Resaul J, Owen S, Ye L, Jiang WG. Clinical and Therapeutic Implications of Follistatin in Solid Tumours. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2016 11-12; 13(6):425-435.
Several cancers and the treatment regimens adversely affect gonadal health, thus preserving the reproductive future is a major emotional and financial concern among cancer survivors. Numerous studies show the promise of AMH as a serum-based biomarker for the assessment of ovarian reserve in cancer patients and survivors. It is important to note that assessment of ovarian reserve in certain cancer patients and survivors involves measuring very low AMH levels. Several studies comparing AMH immunoassays show that Ansh Labs’ highly sensitive AMH assays accurately measure AMH levels reported as undetected by other commercial assays.
Ansh Labs has also developed an AMH assay that uses dry blood spots compared to the conventional serum or plasma samples. Dried blood spot specimens stability makes it a practical alternative to venous blood. It opens new possibilities in AMH testing, such as comparison of historical to current patient results; simplified blood sampling for patients in remote locations or for those who are homebound.
- Acıbucu F, Acıbucu DO, Akkar ÖB, Dokmetas HS. Evaluation of Ovarian Reserve with AMH Level in Patients with Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Receiving Radioactive Iodine Ablation Treatment. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2016 Nov;124(10):593-596.
- Gupta AA, Lee Chong A, Deveault C, Traubici J, Maloney AM, Knight S, Lorenzo A, Allen L. Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Female Adolescent Cancer Patients Before, During, and After Completion of Therapy: A Pilot Feasibility Study. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2016 Dec;29(6):599-603.
- Iwase A, Osuka S, Nakamura T, Kato N, Takikawa S, Goto M, Kikkawa F. Usefulness of the Ultrasensitive Anti-Müllerian Hormone Assay for Predicting True Ovarian Reserve. Reprod Sci. 2016 Jun;23(6):756-60. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Chai J, Cameron D, Howie F, Anderson A. A Highly-Sensitive AMH Assay Improves Analysis of Ovarian Function Following Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer. European Journal of Cancer 2014 Sep; 50(14):2367-74. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Decanter C, Peigne M, Mailliez A, Morschhauser F, Dassonneville A, Dewailly D, Pigny P. Toward a better follow-up of ovarian recovery in young women after chemotherapy with a hypersensitive antimüllerian hormone assay. Fertil Steril. 2014 Aug;102(2):483-7. Products Cited: picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Su HI, Sammel MD, Homer MV, Bui K, Haunschild C, Stanczyk FZ. Comparability of antimüllerian hormone levels among commercially available immunoassays. Fertil Steril. 2014 Jun;101(6):1766-72. Products Cited: AMH ELISA AL-105, picoAMH ELISA AL-124
- Roberts SC, Seav SM, McDade TW, Dominick SA, Gorman JR, Whitcomb BW, Su HI. Self-collected dried blood spots as a tool for measuring ovarian reserve in young female cancer survivors. Human Reproduction, Vol.31, No.7 pp. 1570–1578, 2016. Products Cited: AMH DBS ELISA AL-129
Inhibins and Activins are gonadal hormones relevant for the assessment of testicular function. Serum Inhibin B and Activin A levels have been correlated with several conditions affecting spermatogenesis and patients with idiopathic male infertility show higher levels of Activin A in serum and semen samples as compared to fertile donors. Serum Inhibin B was also found to be useful in the prediction of azoospermia risk in testicular cancer patients post-treatment. Ansh Labs has developed a panel of highly specific Inhibin B and Activin assays. These assays enabled us to determine that Activin A is predominant over Activin B and Inhibin complexes in azoospermia patients (poster available at: http://www.anshlabs.com/overview-activins-and-inhibins/).
- Barbotin AL, Ballot C, Sigala J, Ramdane N, Duhamel A, Marcelli F, Rigot JM, Dewailly D, Pigny P, Mitchell V. The serum inhibin B concentration and reference ranges in normozoospermia. Eur J Endocrinol. 2015 Jun;172(6):669-76
- Isaksson S, Eberhard J, Ståhl O, Cavallin-Ståhl E, Cohn-Cedermark G, Arver S, Lundberg Giwercman Y, Giwercman A. Inhibin B concentration is predictive for long-term azoospermia in men treated for testicular cancer. Andrology. 2014 Mar;2(2):252-8
- Muttukrishna S, Farouk A, Sharma S, Evans L, Groome N, Ledger W, Sathanandan M. Serum activin A and follistatin in disorders of spermatogenesis in men. Eur J Endocrinol. 2001 Apr;144(4):425-9.
- Galimova E.F., Akhmadullina G.Kh., Bulygin K.V., Mochalov K.S., Galimov Sh.N. Inhibin B and Activin A in the Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Male Infertility. Kazan Med Zh. 2015; 96 (5): 749-752. (Article in Russian)
Prognostic role of AMH in assisted reproductive is well studied. Numerous studies focusing on patients undergoing in vitro fertility and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) report correlation between AMH and treatment outcomes. Seminal AMH levels were reported to be useful in predicting motile sperm recovery rate in cryopreserved semen from asthenozoospermic men. Seminal AMH may also be useful in selecting infertile patients for recombinant FSH treatment.
Though major focus has been on AMH, studies also show that serum Activin A can be a marker of outcomes in pregnancies conceived via IVF. Levels of Inhibin B in follicular fluid correlates with presence of oocyte and Activin A/Inhibin B ratio in follicular fluid has also been shown to correlate with the number of oocytes retrieved. Inhibin B levels were reported to gradually increase during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation procedure and correlated with outcomes.
- Nikmard F, Aflatoonian B, Hosseini E, Aflatoonian A, Bakhtiyari M, Aflatoonian R. A comparative study on the results of agonist and antagonist protocols based on serum AMH levels in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd). 2016 Dec;14(12):769-776.
- Aydin T, Kara M, Aran T, Turktekin N, Ozdemir B. The association between anti-Müllerian hormone and IVF-ICSI outcome in poor responder patients performing long protocol. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2015;42(5):663-5.
- Lukaszuk K, Liss J, Kunicki M, Jakiel G, Wasniewski T, Woclawek-Potocka I, Pastuszek E. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a strong predictor of live birth in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology. Reprod Biol. 2014 Sep;14(3):176-81.
- Liao CC, Lee RK, Lin SY, Lin MH, Hwu YM. Outcomes of anti-Müllerian hormone-tailored ovarian stimulation protocols in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles in women of advanced age. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Apr;55(2):239-43.
- Wang MH, Chen CH, Wang CW, Hsu MI, Tzeng CR. A higher anti-Müllerian hormone level is associated with an increased chance of pregnancy in patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2015 Jan;35(1):64-8
- Reijnders IF, Nelen WL, IntHout J, van Herwaarden AE, Braat DD, Fleischer K. The value of Anti-Müllerian hormone in low and extremely low ovarian reserve in relation to live birth after in vitro fertilization. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016 May; 200:45-50
- Gomez R, Schorsch M, Hahn T, Henke A, Hoffmann I, Seufert R, Skala C. The influence of AMH on IVF success. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016 Mar; 293(3):667-73
- Caprio F, De Franciscis P, Trotta C, Ianniello R, Mele D, Colacurci N. Seminal anti-Müllerian hormone levels during recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone treatment in men with idiopathic infertility undergoing assisted reproduction cycles. Andrology. 2015 Sep; 3(5):843-7
- Nery SF, Vieira MA, Dela Cruz C, Lobach VN, Del Puerto HL, Torres PB, Rocha AL, Reis AB, Reis FM. Seminal plasma concentrations of Anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin B predict motile sperm recovery from cryopreserved semen in asthenozoospermic men: a prospective cohort study. Andrology. 2014 Nov; 2(6):918-23
- Akan E, Ugur M, Altinkaya SO, Ozat M, Soysal S. Predictive power of activin A levels in the prognosis of first trimester in vitro fertilization pregnancies. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011 May; 20(5):671-6
- Cupisti S, Dittrich R, Mueller A, Strick R, Stiegler E, Binder H, Beckmann MW, Strissel P. Correlations between anti-müllerian hormone, inhibin B, and activin A in follicular fluid in IVF/ICSI patients for assessing the maturation and developmental potential of oocytes. Eur J Med Res. 2007 Dec 14; 12(12):604-8.
- Babćová K, Ulčová-Gallová Z, Rumpík D, Mičanová Z, Bibková K. Inhibin A and B levels in serum and follicular fluids of women with various reproductive failures undergoing in vitro fertilization. Ginekol Pol. 2015 Oct; 86(10):726-30.
- Li Y, Nie M, Liu Y, Zhang W, Yang X. The dynamic changes of anti-Mullerian hormone and inhibin B during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in decreased ovarian reserve women and the effect on clinical outcome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2015 Jun; 31(6):450-3
During embryonic development, AMH plays an important role in sexual differentiation. In the male fetus the expression of AMH from primitive Sertoli cells causes Mullerian duct regression, while in the female fetus the absence of AMH allows for development of female reproductive organs. AMH levels at birth are very high in boys and very low to undetectable in girls. In cases of ambiguous genitalia, AMH measurement becomes essential to determine the presence of testicular tissue. Many other conditions involving disorders of sex development rely on AMH assessment for determining treatment options. Ansh Labs’ picoAMH, Dried Blood Spot AMH, and Inhibin B assays are particularly well suited for AMH measurement in pediatric populations with low AMH levels and sample volume limitations.
- Edelsztein NY, Grinspon RP, Schteingart HF, Rey RA. Anti-Müllerian hormone as a marker of steroid and gonadotropin action in the testis of children and adolescents with disorders of the gonadal axis. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2016; 2016:20.
- Matuszczak E, Hermanowicz A, Komarowska M, Debek W. Serum AMH in Physiology and Pathology of Male Gonads. Int J Endocrinol. 2013; 2013:128907
- Josso N, Rey RA, Picard JY. Anti-müllerian hormone: a valuable addition to the toolbox of the pediatric endocrinologist. Int J Endocrinol. 2013; 2013:674105.
- Lindhardt Johansen M, Hagen CP, Johannsen TH, Main KM, Picard JY, Jørgensen A, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Juul A. Anti-müllerian hormone and its clinical use in pediatrics with special emphasis on disorders of sex development. Int J Endocrinol. 2013; 2013:198698.
In addition to client publications and reports, Ansh Labs has also validated many of its immunoassays for various animal species as well as offering an array of species-specific assays. For more information, please reference our Species Specific Immunoassays summary.
Date Published: March 9, 2017